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Robert honored with Energy Globe Award – World Award for Sustainability PRAGUE 2009

Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe and there is compelling logic that leads us all to believe that surely this gas can provide an almost limitless source of energy for the world.
However, chemical activity and the physical properties of hydrogen make its isolation a highly energy-intensive process.

Nearly all the hydrogen currently manufactured in the world is through the steam reforming of hydrocarbons, process that has low energy conversion efficiency and results to rapidly growing number of 8.8 billion tons of carbon being emitted annually – this is data from 2009 by Royal Society of Chemistry.
Necessity to heat the enormous catalyst inside the steam reformer to the high working temperature average of 800 degrees C, spends large amounts of energy in order to operate.
8.8 billion Tonnes of carbon emitted in the atmosphere are devastating result of the anticipated “clean energy” usage.

We cannot seriously think of kick-starting Hydrogen Economy without addressing this first obstacle. – Excerpt from speech given on GREEN LEADERS SUMMIT 2013 –  Sydney, Australia

 

Summary

Plasma assisted hydrogen generation from water; Projected to serve on-demand scalable stationary and mobile utilization with fuel cell, combustion and life support systems; Under highest energy efficiency employing LENR exothermic effect;  Hope Cell can be adapted to many existing devices and utilities which already consist of significant technical and capital input while minimizing need for grid or expensive hydrogen infrastructure, therefore bridging the gap of technology in transition from the 20th to the 21st century; Transition from hydrocarbon fuels to hydrogen technological solutions.

hope-concept-water-update2

Applications

  • Plasma assisted hydrogen generation from water, projected to serve on-demand scalable stationary and mobile utilization with fuel cell, combustion
  • Energy conservation of alternative energy sources – wind and solar, allowing grid-less energy generation in remote locations for on demand usage;
  • Waste-water bio-treatment; Radioactive water treatment and energy most efficient sea water desalination;
  • Carbon Sequestration in conjunction with Natural Gas as a medium for hydrogen generation;
  • Clean energy for heat, electricity and storage can become more affordable and accessible for a wider population in near future.
  • Underwater, space life support system – no nitrogen sickness

Published in RESEARCH GATE  

One of the main problems associated with hydrogen production in hydrocarbon conversion process, from chemical point of view, is kinetic limitation. Low feasibility narrowing options of process for conventional thermal conversion. High energy consumption, using special high-priced catalysts to attain reasonable productivity and equivalent equipment size without much scalability rate characterize this technology. The necessity to heat the catalyst to the high working temperature (aprox.800 0C) leads also to the problem of ‘cold start’ and restricting mobile applications, which would minimise need of hydrogen infrastructure, storage and improve safety of utilisation. Enormous energy waste in the process accompanied with production of over 8.8 billion tons* of carbon globally, are additional negative aspects of the process.

Hydrogen basic physical properties ensure future wide usage as an energy source and carrier of high caloric value. Wide variety of applications can be adapted to hydrogen use as the source or medium of energy.

Hydrogen is very reactive element and does not exist in elementary form in natural environment of the Earth. It always comes in molecular arrangement of clusters based on H2 dipole. Stability of those clusters depends of stability of all elements included. Hydrogen is bonded with other elements not only as single molecule bond but rather as oscillating clusters of molecules bonded together.

Hydrogen bonds on photo and schematic

                                                                                                                                                                             Hydrogen cluster image and schematic of it

The substantial cooperative strengthening of the hydrogen bond is dependent on long range interactions and strength of each bond in the cluster which encourages larger clusters formation for the same average bond density and potential.

Elements isolation can be achieved by exposing cluster to range of high temperatures. An unstable elementary hydrogen in cluster, whose bond with other elements has been broken when exposed to high temperatures, will tend to react with predominantly electrically opposite element in its proximity. In a vacuum environment it will form hydrogen molecule.

Breaking one bond through exposing cluster to heat generally weakens those around. If exposed to the oxygen environment, and accompanied with high temperature, hydrogen will violently react in combining with oxygen through combustion. This mechanism would define most common combustion in general, allowing for some untypical exceptions. Exothermic reaction further breaks the hydrogen bond with other elements of the cluster, exposes more hydrogen to run off combustion process.

If we take, for example, hydrocarbon case, different hydrocarbon bonds occur in various lengths and structures, comprise various additional elements as well. More complex hydrocarbon cluster can be broken to as many simple hydrocarbons and other components through exposing to different temperatures.

Reactivity of metal hydride with hydrogen molecule H2 is known and used in various applications.

The phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement results from the formation of interstitial hydrides. Interstitial hydrides most commonly exist within metals or alloys more closely resembling common alloys. In such hydrides, hydrogen can exist as either atomic or diatomic entity. Mechanical or thermal processing, such as bending, striking, or annealing may cause the hydrogen to precipitate out of solution, by degassing. These systems are usually non-stoichiometric, with variable amounts of hydrogen atoms in the lattice. Hydrides of this type forms according to either one of two main mechanisms. The first mechanism involves the adsorption of dihydrogen, succeeded by the cleaving of the H-H bond, the delocalization of the hydrogen’s electrons, and finally, the diffusion of the protons into the metal lattice. The other main mechanism involves the electrolytic reduction of ionised hydrogen on the surface of the metal lattice, also followed by the diffusion of the protons into the lattice. The second mechanism is responsible for the observed temporary volume expansion of certain electrodes used in electrolytic experiments.

Those mechanisms does not have any typical side effects of an atomic reaction, supported by strong evidence of lattice transmutation through spectrometry readings, and can’t be considered as such.

Mechanism initiated through plasma treatment of hydrogen based cluster in presence of metal hydride lattice would present new moment in hydrogen embrittlement accompanied with exothermic reaction.

Hope Cell initial sea water test with LENR surface etching evidence; plasma relocation example

Hope Cell initial sea water test with LENR surface etching evidence; plasma relocation example

Practical example of hydrogen embrittlement through proposed mechanism in metal hydride lattice

Plasma is a highly – density source of energy, which covering process enthalpy and provide optimal temperature range to eliminate kinetic limitations of hydrogen isolation.

Low electrical conductivity of the medium has been converted in to high conductivity physical properties through plasma change of the state of the matter.

Double Layer plasma mechanism isolate an unstable and highly reactive elementary atomic hydrogen H in cluster, whose bond with other elements has been broken. Exposed atomic hydrogen proton will violently react with surrounding fast moving metal hydride lattice electron and forming additional neutron through isolated but violent exothermic reaction.

This additional exothermic reaction – highly energized emission, results in elevated atomic hydrogen isolation by syncing into molecular dipole frequency with resonating effect, where excessive breakage of surrounding cluster bonds is maintained in a run-off process. Breaking one bond, through exposing hydrogen medium cluster to excess heat, bends and weakens bonds around, and process is repeated in surrounding area of metal hydride lattice.

Mechanism eventually results in forming of H2 Deuterium, which is one neutron heavier, and sheds excess binding energy to the lattice through beta decay, further resulting in nano-dimensional isolated transmutation of lattice, with spectrometry detection of numerous new elements.

Plasma electromagnetic excitement allows process to continue with the hydrogen proton capture in lattice. Each successive cascade and decay emit significant amount of excess heat energy and result in further isolated metal hydride surface lattice transmutation through this weak nuclear force.

Hydrogen latice penetration through double layer plasma formation

Schematic of Hydrogen embrittlement in metal hydride lattice and conditions of exothermal reaction mechanism LENR

Hydrogen based cluster decomposition through double layer plasma mechanism demonstrates a high specific productivity of decomposition rate comparing with steam reforming or partial oxidation processes.

Employing plasma, as an medium for changing state of the matter of the cluster, change its physical properties. Plasma electrical charge ionising hydrocarbon and allowing lower temperatures of decomposition from approximately 8000C in conventional steam reforming to approximately 1000C with plasma decomposing through resonating bonds in the cluster with high energetic rate, and resulting in more effective and substantially less energy demanding breakage of hydrogen-carbon bond. Enthalpy of the mechanism covering wide range of temperatures where different hydrogen based clusters can be decomposed. Process demonstrates over-unity comparing to electrolysis or steam reforming and is proportionally reflected by lowering final price of the product.Hope Cell Double Layer Plasma Mechanism

This approach gives numeral advantages of:

Lower energy consumption; Higher energy efficiency in production; Starting and stopping process of decomposition close to instantaneous; User friendly control with possibility of instant variable output of the process; Scalability of application; Decomposition approaching 100% under optimal high pressure;

Wide variety of hydrogen based cluster compounds can be used in plasma decomposition through proposed method, where carbon, as the by-product is released in solid soot state – easy removable and ready for usage in different applications or safe storage. Important characteristic of the process are simplification of the decomposition; no need for catalyst so no catalyst deactivation; scalable size; on demand usage; mobile equipment friendly; low cost applications. Water decomposing would be most obvious application as well.

 
magnyfied plasma thermoionic scatering under   720 Wh

Result of applying mechanism to sea water decomposition

Unique scalable setup allowing exothermic effect of hydrogen in robust stainless steel enclosure with LENR evidence; Neutron capture and weak interactions explain the surface reactions and excess heat generation.
Hope Cell have it spread throughout the body of the cell on multiple rate – example of discovery of controlling, directing and magnification of the plasma in the cell strongly supporting water dislocation in anomalous over-unity quantity comparing to standard electrolysis. Plasma has been relocated away from initial plasma electrodes;
Burned mark on other side of the body showing plasma change of the state of the matter of the water and physical properties as result of it (water can burn)!

Using surplus of wind, sun generated energy for conversion to hydrogen for readily available, on demand usage is another innovative example of converting hydrogen to medium or carrier of energy, allowing alternative sources to become mainstream as a major breakthrough in energy consumption.

There are many more exciting possibilities.

* Source – Royal Society of Chemistry 2009

 

GLS 1

Robert presented Hope Cell Technology

Green Leaders Summit 2013 speech 

Excerpt from speech given on GREEN LEADERS SUMMIT 2013 –  Sydney, Australia

The world is now at a turning point in planning its energy provision for the future, as the industrial growth, and climate change effects of global warming have to be addressed.

There are schools of thought that picture a Hydrogen Economy based on combustion, while others see domination of fuel cells as the principal energy vector for the future.

Hydrogen powered cars are rolling out of production lines as we speak, where the combustion emission side effect is pure water.

Fuel cell technology which uses hydrogen in a clean electrochemical process to generate electricity is currently well advanced for stationary and mobile applications.

Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe and there is compelling logic that leads us all to believe that surely this gas can provide an almost limitless source of energy for the world.

However, chemical activity and the physical properties of hydrogen make its isolation a highly energy-intensive process.

Nearly all the hydrogen currently manufactured in the world is through the steam reforming of hydrocarbons, process that has low energy conversion efficiency and results to rapidly growing number of 8.8 billion tons of carbon being emitted annually – this is data from 2009 by Royal Society of Chemistry.

Air-Pollution

Necessity to heat the enormous catalyst inside the steam reformer to the high working temperature average of 8000C, spends large amounts of energy in order to operate.

8.8 billion Tonnes of carbon emitted in the atmosphere are devastating result of the anticipated “clean energy” usage.

We cannot seriously think of kick-starting Hydrogen Economy without addressing this first obstacle.

 

Excerpt from speech given on GREEN LEADERS SUMMIT 2013 –  Sydney, Australia

In an ideal world, hydrogen would be made available through the splitting of water into its constituent elements, drawing on renewable energy sources.

Such a process would be both sustainable and carbon neutral.

Hydrogen bond with oxygen in water makes an extremely strong connection. The splitting of water via conventional means is a highly energy intensive process – we basically need much more energy to produce hydrogen, than we can claim back through combustion or electrochemistry.

The enormous energy waste comes with the price tag of the final product, which cannot compete with traditional fuel, and this is the major problem with existing technologies.

One of the main problems associated with hydrogen production through the energy conversion process from a chemical point of view, is kinetic limitation.

The conclusion would be that we have to change physical properties of the medium, in order to efficiently generate hydrogen from it.

Hope Cell Technology represents a pioneering path to the new technology of extracting hydrogen from water, or hydrocarbon medium via an energy efficient method.

The name Hope Cell stands for hydrogen oxygen plasma energy cell.

The Hope Cell design is based on several scientific research principles which have shown results of hydrogen generation in excess of more than 300% better efficiency compared to electrolysis.

Those experiments have had several major limitations. Impressive results were only achieved in the spontaneous bursts for short periods of time, they were not repeatable, and were without any usable viability.

How is Hope Cell addressing these issues?

Hope Cell applies plasma in order to provide the optimal temperature range and eliminate kinetic limitations. In addition, plasma changes the state of matter where physical properties align in the favour of hydrogen isolation. Unique plasma management methods overcome problems of unpredictable intermittent operation.

Hydrogen generation results in affordable, user friendly, viable conversion of energy.

Hope Cell has been designed to trigger and enhance hydrogen exothermal reaction, which happens under certain conditions, where surface spot temperatures on a nano dimensional scale reach over 30000C.

This additional, highly energised emission, results in elevated atomic hydrogen isolation by syncing into molecular dipole frequency, where breakage of cluster bonds is initiated and maintained in a run-off process.

The result is the most advanced energy efficiency – several times higher, compared to technologies used today. It represents a practical break–through in the vision of using “0” carbon emissions in order to produce hydrogen as an energy source and energy carrier.

Such a reaction has recently been recognized through published papers from NASA – American space agency, which prove that the effect has been constantly researched since the 1990s. It has been labelled as a Low Energy Nuclear Reaction.

It is a fact that a great amount of research and development, followed by an even bigger amount of capital, has been invested toward atomic mechanism research by the military and civilian nuclear energy development. Now, it is time to admit – there are parts of the atomic mechanisms which were missed.

NASA just recently received a US government grant to further research and apply Low Energy Nuclear Reaction to propulsion engines on planes. http://coldfusionnow.org/nasa-lenr-aircraft-and-spaceplanes/

A fortnight after my patent was granted, the US Navy research body had been granted a patent which uses technology for transmuting radioactive waste. US8419919 B1

At the moment, a handful of private institutions and researches in the world are claiming R&D on excessive heat of the process and independent evaluations are taking place.

Hope Cell went one step further and is introducing clean hydrogen production. Clean energy development is now becoming a reality through this weak atomic force phenomena implementation.Hope Cell Shematic

The Hope Cell method demonstrates over-unity in achieved energy efficiency compared to electrolysis or steam reforming and will be proportionally reflected by lowering the final price of the product. It’s becoming the most competitive energy solution available.

When coupled with alternative energy sources, such as wind, solar or hydroelectric power generation, becoming the “0” carbon energy solution for on-demand usage.

What has been achieved so far in the development process?

This unique concept has been recognized through receiving Energy Globe Award – the World Award for sustainability.

Intellectual property has been granted patent in the United States and is backed up with two additional patents currently in the final stage of the process in the US as well as in Australia.

Technology has had global exposure through several publications.

Testing and improvements are still ongoing.

But there is more that has to be done.

This project has been self funded and as a result is progressing slower than it could. The development of marketable products of this innovative technology is now dependent on external input.

A strong party is needed, one which can grasp the size of the project, have a global market presence aspiration and ability, to take it to the next level.

Unique scalable setup allowing exothermic effect of hydrogen in robust stainless steel enclosure with LENR evidence; Neutron capture and weak interactions explain the surface reactions and excess heat generation.
 Hope Cell have it spread throughout the body of the cell on multiple rate – example of discovery of controlling, directing and magnification of the plasma in the cell strongly supporting water dislocation in anomalous over-unity quantity comparing to standard electrolysis. Plasma has been relocated away from initial plasma electrodes;
Burned mark on other side of the body showing plasma change of the state of the matter of the water and physical properties as result of it (water can burn)! :-)

magnyfied plasma thermoionic scatering under   720 Wh
Exothermic surface nano-dimensional scattering on early stage testing cell

 

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